Slow Wine 2024
Allegrini 2024

Impressions of harvest 2022, with the first bunches cut, but the bulk still far away

There is concern about drought, but producers don’t panic. Quantity expected to drop, confidence for quality. But, as always, anything can change

The first bunches were harvested in Sicily, then Franciacorta, as a territory, started, but gradually the harvesting of earlier varieties, in this complicated harvest anticipated by the general drought, has begun a bit throughout Italy. The bulk, still, has yet to come, with a harvest that, in Italy, among different varieties and territories, as always will finally end between September and October, barring any resounding surprises. But, in the meantime, among companies, consortia and trade organizations, the first estimates and reflections are arriving on what, it is worth remembering, is undoubtedly the most media-driven of agricultural operations, thanks to the allure and value of wine. At the national level, estimates from agricultural organizations, from Coldiretti to Confagricoltura, to date agree on an average drop in grape quantity of between -10% and -20%. With the drought worrying producers and winemakers, but without triggering panic, with the understanding that, as always, real estimates can only be pulled once the grapes are in the cellar.
In Franciacorta, where the harvest has been underway for the past ten days or so, one of the reference wineries such as Guido Berlucchi,
where Franciacorta was born from the genius of Franco Ziliani, speaks of a “unique vintage” this 2022, marked by unprecedented seasonal average temperatures and extreme drought, with the last rains back in February. The bunches have grown numerous on the vines and the sanitary conditions of the grapes are perfect; however, due to the water stress suffered, the must yield remains uncertain, which will be verified at the time of pressing. “A wake-up call for everyone”, says Arturo Ziliani, the winery’s CEO and enologist, “without geographical or sectorial boundaries. We are facing a serious problem, a symptom of the general health of our planet. However, for this vintage I remain optimistic because the rains, albeit slight, of the last few days of July, have brought a qualitative benefit to the grapes that we are going to harvest in the coming weeks. Generally speaking, despite the fact that it is a vintage with small quantities, there are the premises for a vintage of excellent quality”. “We started the harvest ten days earlier, already planned from the spring, than the last few vintages”, explains oenologist Luigi Bersini, on the other hand, from Castello Bonomi, a Franciacorta reality of the Paladin group. “Fortunately, we were able to do relief irrigation on the younger vines, which suffered the most from the droughty weather, while the older vines, which yield the grapes for our most important Franciacorta wines, thanks to a well-developed root system, had no problems. In addition, the rains of the past few days lead us to be positive. Overall, this seems to be a difficult vintage to decipher, but as of today there are all the prerequisites for excellent Franciacorta wines”. Speaking of bubbles of excellence, to cut the first bunches, in these hours, is also Ferrari, symbolic winery of the Trentodoc of the Lunelli family: “the particularly hot summer we are experiencing has determined a strong anticipation of the timing of the grape harvest, confirming the choice to start the harvest in the vineyards of Ferrari Trento as early as August 10, a good 16 days earlier than 2021”, explains the company. Starting from the vineyards at lower altitudes, where it will be necessary to harvest not only early, but also very fast, then going up in altitude, where the bunches have a more gradual ripening, dictated by the more sensitive thermal variations between day and night, a fundamental characteristic of mountain vineyards, which ensures, even in such hot vintages, a good acidity of the grapes, a fundamental element for the production of excellent bubbles. “Reminiscent somewhat of that of 2003, the 2022 harvest is shaping up to be in the normal range from the point of view of quantity and, despite the seasonal trend, with good prospects from the point of view of quality, thanks to the rains at the beginning of August, but above all to the special arrangements put into practice in the Chardonnay and Pinot Noir vineyards of Ferrari Trento”, comments Marcello Lunelli, enologist and vice president of Ferrari Trento. That is, grape selection and harvesting all by hand, optimal management of water resources with green manure, for example, but also the choice to do research on new rootstocks, such as type M, that is, the latest generation root systems, the result of an intense study activity, conducted by the University of Milan, with the support of Winegraft, of which Marcello Lunelli is president, which guarantee savings of up to 40% of water consumption. For a vineyard, that of Ferrari, which, since 2017, is all certified organic, and tells of far-sighted choices, with investments in vineyards increasingly at higher altitudes, a philosophy that “has proved to be an absolutely decisive choice, in these years of climate change, to keep the quality of its Trentodocs, the “mountain bubbles” par excellence, constant”. But from Trentino come other testimonies as well: according to Ezio Dallagiacoma, technical director of Cembra Cantina di Montagna, which is part of the Cantina La-Vis galaxy and is the highest in the area, with vineyards reaching 900 meters above sea level, “the high temperatures have contributed to an earlier ripening of the grapes, which we now expect in the second half of August. We expect rich and structured wines in which the mountain and its freshness will always find the best way to express itself”.
For the great reds of Trentino and for one of its most important realities the Tenuta San Leonardo of the Guerrieri Gonzaga family, still, however, there will be time to wait. “San Leonardo is nestled between Monte Baldo and the Lessini Mountains and is protected for almost four hours a day from direct sunlight. This is a determining factor in maintaining elegance and freshness in our wines. There are no signs of water stress on the vines, and the quantities seem well above average, and for the harvest, scheduled around September 10, we expect an abundant year”, explains Anselmo Guerrieri Gonzaga.
In neighboring Alto Adige, which has also been hit by extremely high temperatures and a lack of rain, on the other hand, there is still waiting, as Rudi Kofler, winemaker at two top wineries such as Cantina Terlano and Cantina di Andriano, explains, according to which to date the vines have responded well to the drought, but the harvests will be brought forward by 10 days. “In the vineyard we have defoliated less than usual to give the grapes more protection from the sun. In addition, drip irrigation, in which South Tyrolean winegrowers have invested in recent years, is being used in many parts of the area. Overall, the grapes are in good to very good condition, with grapes tending to be more sparse. We expect slightly lower yields. Thanks to some thunderstorms, sufficient rainfall and consequently a drop in temperatures at the end of July, the situation in South Tyrol has eased. At the moment we are positive, but it all depends on the progress of the last ripening phase”.
Still, on Lake Kaltern at Cantina Kaltern, the drought did not create great damage thanks in part to a targeted analysis of the state of the soil and vines with the help of rescue irrigation. In fact, kellermeister Andrea Moser, anticipating a dry and hot summer course, paid special attention to canopy management practices through targeted leaf stripping. “To achieve optimal bunch ripening, both physiological and technological, bunch coverage plays a key role especially during veraison, thus avoiding sunburn and loss of anthocyanins, tannins and acidity. For our white wines, but also for the reds, it is essential to arrive at harvest with homogeneous ripeness and preserving all the elements of aromaticity, freshness and body. In this the rains of the last week of July helped for a homogeneous veraison. Fingers crossed and if nature is clement, the forecast for the beginning of harvest is for early September, about a week ahead of 2021”.
In Piedmont, on the other hand, to date there is an account of a peculiar and not easily managed year. Winter was colder than 2020/2021, but stingy with snowfall. Regular spring and rainfall arrived copiously at the end of May. “While waiting for this rainfall”, says Federica Boffa of the Pio Cesare winery, one of the quality benchmarks of the Langhe and beyond, “the soil had been properly tilled precisely to try to collect as much water as possible in the soil and treated, during the winter months, with the right amount of organic matter”. Agronomic choices, including careful management of greenery in the vineyards to keep the bunches well covered and protected from leaves and severe thinning to lighten the load per plant, proved to be the right key to interpreting climate change. “Despite the fact that 2022 is not an easy year we are accompanying our vines toward a harvest that is not abundant, but certainly of quality, starting the harvest presumably around the second half of August for white grapes and late September for Nebbiolo”.
In Veneto, on the other hand, they explain at Sartori in Verona, observing a vineyard park that revolves all around the city, from Valpolicella to Soave, “the almost total absence of rainfall that characterized the winter and spring period and the anomalous thermometric trend, which saw a delayed budding evolve into a flowering 10 days earlier, represent only some of the anomalies of this vintage”. The critical issue today is the need to support the vines with water supplies to compensate for the high evapotranspiration caused by above-average temperatures. “The clusters”, the technical team continues, “are very sparse and uniform, a characteristic that will make it easier to sort the grapes destined for set-aside. If weather patterns change in the short term with the necessary rainfall and more temperate weather patterns, 2022 could evolve into a satisfying vintage”. In Oltrepò Pavese, where hail has also hit hard in recent weeks, according to Ottavia Giorgi Vistarino, owner of the historic Conte Vistarino winery, “despite the scarcity of rainfall there have been no excessive water stress problems except in areas with looser soils. Already in the early stages of vegetative recovery, we have been working with agronomic interventions to counteract water shortages such as tilling of the under-row checkerboard and alternate row tillage of the inter-row to avoid excessive evaporation of water from the soil and minimizing topping”.
Photographing the situation in Tuscany and its great territories, put like so many others in difficulty by the heat and lack of rain, are the voices of many producers. In Montalcino, in the land of Brunello, says Emilia Nardi, at the head of Tenute Silvio Nardi, “some measures have been taken to reduce the stress on the vines: for example, spreading organic kaolin on the foliage that can reduce transpiration and reflect light, so the plants lose less water from the leaves. Clusters are smaller and production will be lower, but the smaller berry size could be the basis for excellent quality, it’s all up to us to see how the end of the season will be”. “At the moment there is, also as a result of surveys carried out in collaboration with the Crea research institute, a situation of water stress in the vineyards, especially in the areas where the stonier soils do not allow the roots to go too deep”, explains Francesco Ricasoli, head of the historic winery in Brolio, in Gaiole in Chianti, in the heart of Chianti Classico, who adds how even here, to overcome the critical phase, special measures, first of all relief irrigation, have been used to help, above all, young vineyards. In the high hill area of Greve, the François family, owners of Castello di Querceto, are pleased with the response of the land. Fundamental is the natural protection work done by the wooded area surrounding the vineyards and the presence of water reserves in the soils. “In our winery, considering that we are in a high hill area, the vines are still holding up well to water stress, but to complete proper ripening will require some rain and a reduction in maximum temperatures”, says Simone François. Léon Femfert, second generation of Nittardi, in Castellina in Chianti, takes the floor . “For water conservation, soil tillage and plant support interventions are key to ensuring quality production. We carried out surface tillage in the summer to avoid soil splitting and decrease radiation temperatures, applied foliar fertilization and kaolin to nourish plants and decrease transpiration, and took advantage of wild weeds for mulching. This agronomic management allowed the plants to positively overcome high stresses, so that we anticipate a productive year with grapes rich in polyphenols and great structure”. From the Franchetti family’s Trinoro Estate in Sarteano, in the Unesco World Heritage Val d’Orcia, director Calogero Portannese points out, “our good fortune is to be in a strategic position between Mount Amiata and Cetona, which act as a natural barrier and manage in a unique way to mitigate the climate, offering the vines a completely unique situation. We therefore manage to have a 20-degree higher temperature range between day and night, and the providential rain at the end of July proved to be a fundamental help for our plants”. Still, in central Tuscany, at Badia di Morrona in Terricciola, Pisa, the summer weather has been prohibitive, but care and dedication will yield an end result that is satisfactory. “Thanks to a drip irrigation system the plants have suffered less, while in the vineyards without the irrigation practice, intra-row operations have been limited to a minimum to avoid further compacting soils already made very hard by the heat and the almost complete absence of summer rains”, explains Filippo Gaslini Alberti, owner of the winery. Speaking from Maremma, on the other hand, is Castello di Vicarello, where the vineyards “are in great balance thanks to the work done over the years on the soils, which as a result of tillage such as green manure, chaffing, injection of micro-organisms and respectful tillage are now rich in organic matter and retain water, managing to replenish it for the plants”, says Brando Braccheschi Berti. While Ettore Rizzi, head of agronomic management and winery at Fattoria Le Pupille, calls the vintage “extravagant” with a situation, however, less dramatic than in other areas, probably due to the influence of the sea and the specific characteristics of Maremma. Here, too, management of critical issues came through human efforts, thanks to irrigation and agronomic practices. “Such closely spaced vegetative stages caused plant tissues to swell out of proportion initially, the thinner waxes on the leaf and berries increased exposure to cryptogamic attacks. This situation was counteracted by raising the level of attention much higher and by indulging the plants with timely phytosanitary treatments, coupled with conscious canopy management”. On the Tuscan coast, however, from Riparbella, Julian Renaud, head of Colline Albelle, recounts an uphill climatic situation, but without particular alarm. “With the drought of recent years we were already prepared with water management strategies. This year more than ever, the cover crop allowed once cut to maintain soil moisture. We reduced shoot height allowing more lateral canopy growth to limit evapotranspiration in the vineyard”. Staying in Central Italy, reporting an all in all positive situation, in Umbria, is the Arnaldo Caprai winery, the flagship of Sagrantino di Montefalco, where the harvest will begin on August 14 or 16, as in previous vintages, as Marco Caprai explains: “it seems that in this great chaos of nature, the constantly drought-ridden trend since the start has made the plants adapt to a minimum amount of water, so we are facing a harvest that is certainly not easy but where the conditions of the vineyards, resilient and able to go along with nature, will bear good fruit. Certainly, we are witnessing something extraordinary: it is somewhat as if the hypogeal brain of the vine, represented by its root system, has from the beginning reasoned in terms of rationing the water resource. The unirrigated vine is showing us extraordinary adaptability, and after all, we must always remember that the vine is a plant of desert origin. So the question, certainly provocative, is whether it is really okay to irrigate vines or whether its resilience is not rather the answer we have all been waiting for. If, as it seems, there will be a break in these high temperatures, one might think that 2022 in Montefalco will be a very qualitative vintage for red grapes. Considering the 2021 vintage, which was ravaged by frost and great drought, 2022 will probably be a good vintage”.
From Sicily, however, and in particular Etna, the situation is photographed by Vincenzo Lo Mauro, technical director of the Passopisciaro winery, still owned by the Franchetti family. That highlights the good response of the vines, especially the centuries-old ones, to climatic conditions that are almost always extreme here. “The current vintage was characterized by a late autumn with significant rains that created a good reserve of moisture to the soil and a very cool spring, which lasted until mid-May. Since June, completely out of the blue, the vines have been inundated with heat that has persisted for about two and a half months now. We note that the Nerello Mascalese vines from which we produce our Etna Doc and all Contrada wines, now almost all centuries old, are holding up remarkably well. The outlook is for a very good vintage, slightly ahead of schedule”. But Sicily is a wine continent, and many and varied are its territories and grape varieties. “Despite the hot weather, we can say that both quantitatively and qualitatively the grapes are excellent”, comments Filippo Buttafuoco, agronomist at Cantine Settesoli, who inaugurated the 2022 harvest cut with the picking of Pinot Grigio grapes. “The vines have used many of the reserves accumulated during the winter period. Right now we don’t notice any water stress”, adds Francesco Spadafora, owner of the Dei Principi di Spadafora winery in the Monreale area. For Alessandro di Camporeale, still in the Palermo area, “overall quantities are average and quality is very high, given the absence of disease”. Quality is also excellent for the Duca di Salaparuta estate, which adds, “we do not record a decrease in quantity and quality for the native grapes”. The harvest also began days ago at Donnafugata’s Contessa Entellina estate, with the first grapes picked for the production of the classic method sparkling wine base. “The outlook for the 2022 harvest at Donnafugata”, explain the winery led by Antonio and Josè Rallo, “is good thanks to the regular weather conditions so far and the quality-oriented sustainable agricultural practices implemented”. “The data of the last two vintages, with increasingly high quality, and the forecasts for the 2022 harvest, confirm that Sicily shows good resistance to the increasingly evident climate changes, thanks to its location in the heart of the Mediterranean, its microclimates, its terroirs and its indigenous varieties”, comments Assovini Sicilia president Laurent de la Gatinais, who is also at the helm of the Rapitalà winery (of Giv - Gruppo Italiano Vini).
From Puglia, on the other hand, comes the testimony of Leone De Castris, one of the most famous and historic wineries in the region. “This year, too, the long-awaited period for a winery has arrived, that of reaping the fruits of a year of hard work and kicking off the new vintage. As is customary, we start with the Chardonnay, which is already showing perfectly ripe, with rich aromatics and in excellent phytosanitary condition. It is still too early to make predictions about the other grape varieties, but the conditions are in place for grapes with a high level of quality. However, a long and challenging harvest is in store: the drought season and high temperatures are putting a strain on the vines, which, in addition to being ahead of schedule, require more scrupulous and constant supervision than ever, while yields per hectare are expected to be low”. These are the words of Piernicola Leone de Castris, who stresses that “in the past few years, important investments have been made in the area where the grapes are conferred, which have proved to facilitate in no small part the first stages of processing, crucial for obtaining musts particularly rich in aromas. It continues, with the same strength and determination as always, the commitment and dedication we put into caring for the vineyards, in order to obtain healthy grapes, enhance native grape varieties and produce high quality wines”.
If these are the testimonies, thoughts, expectations and estimates of many wineries, many trade associations and consortia and institutional observers are also making their pronouncements. Drawing a rough picture of the Veneto region, for example, is the Veneto Region’s Department of Agriculture itself, headed by Federico Caner, which will release more in-depth forecasts on August 24, but which to date, despite constants such as drought, high temperatures and flavescenza dorata, does not point to any particular criticality, except for a lower harvest, in quantity, on 2021, and a grape harvest, in some territories, at the turn of mid-August.
In the area of the Venezia Doc, Piave and Lison Pramaggiore appellations, for example, the phenological and phytosanitary situation of the grapes is under control, with some more suffering in the vineyards not served by irrigation, with the harvest of the early varieties, particularly Pinot Grigio, to be brought forward over the last few vintages, in the week of Ferragosto. In the vast Prosecco Doc area (all of Veneto - with the exclusion of the provinces of Verona and Rovigo - and Friuli Venezia Giulia), the grapes of the early varieties (Chardonnay and Pinot) have completed the veraison stage, while Glera, depending on the different areas of the denomination, is either in the early stages or up to 80% advanced. Two critical issues have been reported by the Consorzio di Tutela: drought with a consequent high water stress of the plants, although well managed thanks to relief irrigation, and flavescence dorée. Regarding the latter “scourge”, vine growers have taken steps - as required by regional regulations - to uproot symptomatic plants, intervening with compulsory control actions. Fortunately, the grapes look healthy: downy mildew infections are rare precisely because of the low rainfall; a few cases of powdery mildew. Production promises to be good.
In Valpolicella, on the other hand, the rainfall deficit was 60% at the beginning of August: only 120/130 mm of rain was recorded from April to July. The vineyards served by irrigation are, however, in full veraison showing a perfect productive balance. For vineyards not served by artificial irrigation, water stress is very high, particularly for the younger plants. Powdery mildew has given vine growers a hard time, particularly in the hills, as has flavescence dorée, to combat which the Protection Consortium has launched, with the University of Verona, a research project focused both on varietal susceptibility and on the symptoms affecting the area's three main varieties-Corvina, Corvinone Rondinella. For yields, production estimates should not deviate from those of 2021.
In the Colli Euganei, however, the rain that vine growers had been so eagerly awaiting arrived on July 26, ranging from 20 to 60 millimeters of rain, and not only that, providing a vital breath of fresh air to vines also suffering from high temperatures that, along with the very water shortage, had slowed normal phenology. Early varieties are in full veraison. No problems related to downy and powdery mildew; some presence of esca disease, flavescence dorée and blackwood. Grape load looks good but new rainfall would definitely be needed in the next few days as well.
Vintage is characterized by drought and high temperatures, a combination that cancelled the vegetative advance reported at the beginning of the season, even in the Bardolino and Custoza areas. The quantity of grapes present in the vineyards supplied by irrigation is regular; the quality of the grapes is very good. No particular diseases are reported, although powdery mildew spots have been reported in the last few days in the most susceptible varieties. In Friuli-Venezia Giulia, on the other hand, sees a positive 2022 harvest for the Consorzio del Collio, which governs one of the territories of choice for tricolor white wine production. Climatic conditions will lead to an earlier harvest by about 10 days than in recent years. “The overall water deficit and above-average temperatures encountered in the 2022 season also affected our area”, says Consortium President David Buzzinelli, “that notwithstanding, the rains of June and July, albeit isolated, were sufficient to avoid situations of excessive stress and to ensure the maintenance of a standard of excellence. The vines to date are healthy and we are therefore optimistic for the harvest, which should begin, given the weather pattern, towards the end of August, with the Pinot Grigio. In terms of quantity, we expect an average vintage, with a possible drop if this weather situation persists”.
Drawing an overview of Sicily, on the other hand, is the Consorzio Doc Sicilia, led by Antonio Rallo: “we will experience a harvest that, as always, will be the longest in Italy, averaging more than one hundred days, although the start was a few days ahead of 2021: we will proceed from the last days of July with the early varieties, until autumn. The 2022 harvest promises to be 10 to 15% less than 2021, but certainly very satisfactory for the excellent quality of the grapes”. And in Montalcino, in particular, the rain of the past few days bodes well, which, according to the Consorzio del Brunello di Montalcino, “has contributed to a significant improvement in the conditions of the vines, as has the increase in the temperature range between day and night, with average highs at 33 degrees and lows at 18. The weather stations”, the technicians note, “report a uniform accumulation of rainfall in the Montalcino countryside with 75-80 millimeters of rain. The result was immediate, with the improvement in the condition of the plants, which were beginning to go into stress while they have now regained vigor, and with the greenness of the leaves immediately returning. Good news also on the phytosanitary front, with no fungal diseases and with the vineyards in excellent health, while the increased temperature range will contribute to the evolution of the aromas of Brunello, Rosso di Montalcino and the other wines of the 2022 vintage. Finally, since veraison is not finished, the clusters may still increase in volume”. It is still early, for the Consortium, to estimate the timing of the beginning of the harvest, especially in light of weather conditions that are expected to be changeable and with an August that will prove decisive for the quantity and quality of the Tuscan appellation. But it is still Coldiretti that takes a look at the harvest in Piedmont, particularly in Bassa Langa, where they are talking about the earliest harvest ever, a drop in production of up to -20% on 2021, but with a harvest of “good quality”. The varieties for which the harvest has begun are Pinot and Chardonnay for sparkling wine in Bassa Langa, while in Alta Langa, for Docg sparkling wine, accomplices of cooler temperatures, a few more days are expected. Immediately after Ferragosto, it will be the turn of Moscato grapes, then, at the end of August Chardonnay and Arneis. While “for the red grape types, forecasts are difficult, and much will depend on temperatures and possible further and expected rains: we could expect Dolcetto even before mid-September, then Barbera and, between September and October, Nebbiolo”.
Meanwhile, the harvest has also started early in Sardinia where, Coldiretti again explains, in contrast to other regions, production is expected to grow by +15/20% over 2021. To be harvested are the grapes that will be the base for sparkling and spumante wines, in the Campidano di Cagliari area and in Gallura, and then it will be the turn of the Moscato. “From the first estimates, we expect a vintage of good/very good quality”, says Coldiretti Sardegna wine representative Aldo Buiani, “although the harvest trend will be greatly influenced by the rest of August and September to confirm the forecasts also in terms of quantity”. The grape harvest in Val d’Aosta is also expected to be in line, if not up on 2021, with grape quality expected to be very interesting, according to Giulio Corti of the newly formed Consorzio Vini Valle d’Aosta, who predicts the start for sparkling wine bases at the end of August, and then continue with a very long harvest, until November. Estimates for the grape harvest in Emilia Romagna, signed by Confagricoltura, are from late July, with the start of the harvest for sparkling wine bases expected in these days, but with critical quantitative estimates, especially in hilly areas, where it is more difficult to irrigate. “An explosive situation, which alarms the entire sector and will lead to a sharp drop in production, if compared with the average of the last 10 years, overall in the order of 25-30% (with peaks of up to 50%) in the hills and at least 10% in the plains, barring any stops to irrigation”. says Confagricoltura Emilia Romagna winegrowers’ president Mirco Gianaroli, who speaks of the “need to safeguard plant life first and to look for alternative solutions, resistant rootstocks and precision agronomic techniques that can ensure greater water savings; we need to build irrigation basins and invest in research to arrive at alternative solutions that can offer an effective system of defense of wine production from pests and diseases”. Still, to the south, in Calabria, come estimates from the Consorzio di tutela dei Vini Doc Cirò e Melissa, led by Raffaele Librandi, which estimates 2022 production up +10% over the previous 2021 harvest. “This winter we have not had extreme weather phenomena or hailstorms, but we record a lack of rain. In June, temperatures were far above average. At the moment, there do not seem to be any problems on plant health and the phytosanitary status is very good. Harvest, for the 300 grape growers (many in organic regime), should start early in mid-September”.
This, then, to date, is an initial spot picture of what is happening, or what is expected, in the Italian vineyard. A picture that, as is always worth remembering, can be turned upside down in a matter of days, if not hours, by a weather pattern that is less and less regular, and more and more a harbinger of extreme events, with which Italian viticulture and not only, well beyond the contingent 2022 grape harvest, will have to reckon with in the future.

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